Nostrils That Come With Flair


For several years, auto designers lavished attention on the grilles of cars, both for their function and for their brand identity. Now designers are lowering their sights.

They may have shifted their focus to openings within the sides of the front bumpers. After checking out them for enough time, a casual observer might think of these as nostrils, though designers call these cooling-air intakes.

“The term ‘nostrils’ is sensible, because these are where the vehicle breathes,” said Bryan Thompson, an impartial designer who has worked at Nissan.

Vehicles’ faces seem to be showing more and larger expressively formed nostrils, to judge from many models at the New York City International Auto Show. The show, with the Jacob K. Javits Convention Center, runs through Sunday.

There are functional reasons for these aids to heavy breathing: Modern high-efficiency engines require more air for cooling, and designers are under pressure to improve aerodynamics with regard to fuel economy.

But prominent vents in the vehicle’s fascia also play into designers’ desire to make cars appear lower and wider. They assist to compensate visually for pedestrian-protection regulations and other factors which may have raised cars’ front ends.

“You need to have some sort of detail to top off that dull space,” Mr. Thompson said.

The larger nostrils will make cars look more powerful, more sporty or even more elegant and provide common cues across a brand’s model lineup, much like grilles.

“They are getting more necessary for cooling and for aero as well,” Moray Callum, vice president for design at Ford, said in an interview during press previews for that auto show. “But also, they are getting more and more expressive because we are using every way we can to give a vehicle a little bit more of its own signature.”

A good example of such a signature could be purchased at Hyundai’s display at the Ny show. Among photos from the 2015 Sonata sedan that Hyundai released to the press was an unusual close-up of one of many car’s nostrils. It was carefully formed, accented with bright metal and bejeweled having a row of small lamps. Particularly unlike a similar view of the current Sonata, the vent exemplified the elegance and dignity that Chris Chapman, chief designer for Hyundai Design The United States, said were qualities from the car’s fresh look.

Often, larger nostrils are utilized to suggest increased power underneath the hood. The Mercedes-Benz S63 AMG coupe introduced in New York, as an example, displays wider nostrils, with a sweeping shape, than the basic S-Class. BMW has given its M high-performance models large nostrils, suggesting their additional horsepower. They also have fluid, horizontal shapes that imply a lower center of gravity and metaphorically suggest agility.

No marque has historically emphasized nostrils so much as Lamborghini, whose logo is really a bull with flaring nostrils and whose models have often been named after famous fighting bulls. Fittingly then, large, flared nostrils like those in the new Huracán are an important a part of the traditional Lamborghini face, Filippo Perini, the head of Lamborghini’s Centro Stile studio, said in an interview during the show.

The large double openings “are element of our design D.N.A.,” he said, adding: “We work with the face in the car first. We are always trying to offer to the car an expression with aface and eyes, nose. These let the car say for your needs, ‘I’m aggressive’ or ‘I’m polite.’ ”

In addition to brake and engine cooling, some nostrils direct air with the front wheel wells to lessen drag.

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There is considerable variety in how nostril designs are expressed. Many nostrils are faced with aggressive black mesh textures, although some are framed in chrome or increasingly these days accented with jewellike LEDs, often in a tube configuration. Bejeweled nostrils are seen in the Range Rover Evoque, for instance.

Sometimes what looks to be a nostril does not admit air whatsoever, but is given over to a lamp of some sort – or just a blacked-out panel. The chrome or lamp may change the design message of nostrils, indicating a more expensive model or trim level.

The latest vents make car faces more visually complex. Some nostrils echo the shapes of headlamps, like shadows or reflections. Several designers said that they had noted a tendency to use the top half of the car’s face for expression while the lower half is designed for function. The fronts of some BMWs are divided between a bright grille and headlamps within their upper half and darkened vents from the lower half.

Whether being a functional vent or simply a lamp holder, the nostril is a handy device for designers playing on resemblances within a brand family. For instance, various Buick models make extensive use of nostrils as accents, including the upright slash in the Regal GS’s aperture.

Judging from the cars at recent shows, there could be even bigger nostrils to come. As an example, the Toyota FCV, a design study for a future hydrogen fuel-cell car, has nostrils the size of a Lamborghini’s.

How to Make Moving to a Small Town is Awesome

DTLA Nissan 7-1

Living in the suburbs does not have to mean only cookie cutter houses and soccer practice. There can be some really cool things about living outside a main city that many people never even think about. Here are three awesome reasons for living in the suburbs.

1. Small Businesses

Not all suburbs are strip malls and big box stores. Many older small towns are filled with small, local businesses that can really be pretty neat. Try to find a town that has a nice main street and values having a historic district. You will find every imaginable small business in places like this.

2. Lots of Stuff To Do

Not all activity takes place in the city. Many small towns will have all sorts of stuff set up for residents to do including farmer’s markets, parades and concerts. Many small towns also pride themselves on having nice park areas and biking and walking trails for people who live there, meaning they can be a great place to be if you like to be outside.

3. Nicer to Drive In

DTLA Nissan 7-2

One plus about not living in the city is not having city traffic. Many small towns have pretty minimal traffic, making driving much less stressful. When you are having your stress free drive, have a car to match, such as the Nissan XTerra from Alhambra Nissan. With sporty styling and a V6 engine, the XTerra not only works better in the suburbs, but will be fantastic when you decide you need something even more outdoorsy. Plus, you will have all sorts of comforts while you are driving as well, such as a premium navigation system and an interior that is easy to clean when you get things dirty. Find out about how to schedule a test drive of the XTerra today at Downtown Nissan.

Rolls-Royce Powers Ghost V-Specification With V12 Engine & Twin Turbochargers


Should you be buying a Rolls-Royce a couple of decades ago and inquired regarding how much power it produced, the official answer you’d receive was “adequate” – or, in the case of a turbocharged model, “perfectly adequate.” But those days are far behind, because while Rolls-Royce continues to produce engines with over six and a half liters of capacity – a size that would put most muscle cars to shame – the amount of power they produce keeps climbing. Especially when it comes to its newer, smaller models.

Rolls-Royce Ghost V-Specification

Of course “smaller” is a relative term, and also the comparatively compact Ghost remains larger than most luxury sedans. And to motivate it, parent company BMW developed a 6.6-liter V12 engine with twin turbochargers that generate a gargantuan 563 horsepower. But even that massive output was dwarfed when Rolls-Royce turned the Ghost saloon into the Wraith fastback coupe, in which the same engine has become retuned to create an even more prodigious 624 horsepower. Those seeking the accommodations offered by the Ghost, combined with performance approaching that of the Wraith, will be pleased by the arrival of your new Ghost V-Specification.

Rolls-Royce Ghost V-Specification

“This limited series celebrates one of Ghost’s defining characteristics; the exquisite 6.6 litre Rolls-Royce V12 engine,” said Rolls-Royce CEO Torsten Müller-Ötvös. “”Since its introduction in 2009, an extraordinary marriage of assured presence and remarkable driving dynamics has endeared Ghost to a new generation of highly discerning businessmen and women, ensuring the car’s position as the statement of choice for a growing band of successful entrepreneurs around the globe.

Rolls-Royce Ghost V-Specification

Offered on both the standard and long-wheelbase versions from the Ghost sedan, the V-Specification upgrades to 593hp – evenly splitting the difference in output between the base Ghost and the more powerful Wraith. As a result, the V-Specification model can reach 60 miles per hour from a standstill within 4.7 seconds.

Along with the boost in output, this model is distinguished by 21-inch wheels, a hand-painted coachline, special treadplates, embroidered leather, a unique clock in the dashboard, and five exterior color choices selected specifically for the V-Specification design. Of course, buyers can still select from the 44,000 colors offered in the Rolls-Royce catalog should the unique shades of black, grey or white prove anything less than adequate.

Porsche Recreates A Legend With New Boxster And Cayman GTS


The Porsche name is a legend unto itself, responsible for creating some of the most iconic sports and racing cars in the history of the automobile. But even throughout the pantheon of Porsche lore, the letters GTS carry a certain clout for enthusiasts. They first appeared about the legendary 904 Carrera GTS of 1963, resurfaced in the front-engined 924 GTS and 928 GTS, then disappeared from the scene for another number of decades before Porsche brought it back for even sportier-oriented versions of the Cayenne, Panamera, and 911. And now it’s applying the legendary letters once again for the latest, most desirable versions in the Boxster and Cayman.

Both of these models, for those unfamiliar, represent the entry level of Porsche’s lineup – the Boxster as the convertible and the Cayman as its fixed-roof counterpart. However in their latest iterations, they emerged from the shadow of their big brother, the 911, to stand on their own four wheels as highly capable and lust-worthy sportscars all on their own. The GTS versions only serve to ensure they even more so.

Porsche Boxster and Cayman GTS

What sets these GTS models apart from the Boxster Cayman and S S is much more power and upgraded equipment. The 3.4-liter boxer six engine has been upgraded by 15 horsepower and seven pounds per foot of torque to produce 330 hp and 273 lb-ft in the Boxster GTS, and 340 hp and 280 lb-ft within the Cayman GTS. Unlike the enthusiast’s favorite 911 GT3 – which can be only available having a dual-clutch transmission in its current, combustible version – the Boxster and Cayman GTS can be had with a six-speed manual transmission.

But they are even quicker using their seven-speed dual-clutch gearbox with launch control initiated through the Sport Plus button: the Boxster GTS will rocket from -60 in 4.4 seconds and top out at 174 miles per hour, even though the Cayman GTS (with a little more power and a little less weight) will do a similar in 4.3 seconds en path to its 177 mph top speed.

Porsche Boxster and Cayman GTS

Not long ago, those are figures would have belonged only to a six-figure supercar, but the Boxster GTS is priced at $73,500 as well as the Cayman GTS at $75,200 (plus an obligatory $995 destination charge). That makes both of them about ten grand a lot more than the existing S versions, but about the same amount less than a 911 Carrera – with only ten fewer horsepower to exhibit for it.

For the price, you also receive the otherwise optional Sport Chrono package and Porsche Active Suspension Management system as standard, and also 21-inch wheels, blacked-out trim, and an interior fitted with Sports Seats Plus and swathed in Alcantara. You will get all of that, along with the clout of owning and driving what is argued to get the finest compact mid-engined sportscar Porsche makes to date.

Crazy Car Insurance Claims and Excuses

When it comes to car insurance claims some people really do have a sense of humor . . . not to mention the motor insurance companies. The funniest part is that they probably don’t even mean to be amusing; they just say it how it is . . . sort of. You’ll soon see what I mean.
“As I was driving to my work at 7 o’clock this morning I reversed into a bus but it was not my fault, the bus was a full five minutes early” . . . . how about that for starters?


“I did slow down in line with the traffic in front but unfortunately it was more stationary than I expected it to be”
Question – “could either of the drivers involved in the accident have done something to avoid it?” – seems fair enough don’t you think, and here’s the ingenious answer “they could have taken the bus”.
“The windscreen suddenly broke for no apparent reasons – perhaps it was down to voodoo”.
“I had a collision with a stationary SUV which was driving in the other direction”.
The guys down at Ford Fontana love some of these . . . here are a few more.
“The car travelling in front of me was in a collision with a pedestrian, the pedestrian stood up to I hit her again”.
“An invisible car appeared from nowhere, crashed into my car and then completely disappeared again . . . it just vanished”.

Muscle car drawing

“When I arrived home I turned into the wrong house and crashed into a tree which we don’t have”.
“The other guy was crazy and veering all over the highway – I had to swerve many times before I eventually ran into him”.
“I tried to kill a fly but crashed into a tree”.
“The pedestrian ran into me and straight underneath my truck”.
“The accident happened because I was waving to the guy I ran over last week”.
“A house ran into my car”.
“The pedestrian made a quick dash for the sidewalk but I hit him just the same”.
“Nobody can be blamed for this accident although it wouldn’t have happened had the other driver been more alert”.
“I backed out of my driveway the same as usual, and hit the other car just like I have several times before”.
“I did knock down the pedestrian but it was his own fault – he admitted it – he’s been knocked down many times before”.
“The lady didn’t know which way to run so I just ran over her”.
“I did tell the traffic police man that I wasn’t injured but when I took my hat off I realized that my skull had been fractured”.
“I crashed into a tree which was completely obscured by humans”.
“The dude behind me crashed into my backside and then stopped in a bush whilst showing only his rear end”.
“The lamp post was approaching my car far too quickly, I tried to swerve and avoid it but it was too late, it struck my front end”.


“I legally parked my vehicle before it backed up into the vehicle behind”.
Some of these are unbelievable but they are all true . . . at least I believe that the people who made the claims were telling the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth, don’t you?
At Fairview Ford they have a comprehensive selection of motors ready, willing and able to replace any cars which have been damaged and are undergoing insurance claims – no matter what the story is.

Paris2004: Nissan Pathfinder And Murano Is On Its Way To Europe


Nissan of Europe is banking a number of its future growth on a couple of vehicles originally designed for the United States market. One, the Murano crossover, has been on sale in America more than a year while the other, the newest-generation Pathfinder SUV, will go on sale stateside within a matter of weeks. The casual observer needs to wonder, simply how much success does Nissan expect with this set of midsize SUVs on a continent that looks at America’s obsession with those exact kinds of vehicles as some sort of ridiculous show of extravagance?

The perfect solution may be “not much.” With both vehicles being designed primarily for the US, they only need success here for them to be profitable. Anything on top of that is just icing on the cake. You get the point, although well, it’s not quite that simple. By way of example, Nissan has already established to invest in some design changes meant to make the Murano and Pathfinder more appropriate to European tastes, including over 1600 revisions on the Murano as well as an entirely different assembly location for European-sold Pathfinders.

Nissan Pathfinder. Courtesy: Nissan Europe

Externally, the Pathfinder looks basically identical to US-spec models, with only minor details revised to meet European regulations. Whereas power-hungry Americans with relatively low fuel costs get Nissan’s new 4.0L version of their venerable VQ V6 engine with 270hp, the European Pathfinder will get a 2.5L turbo diesel engine with 174ps and 403Nm of torque – more in line with the demands of a market where gas may cost over $4.00 a gallon.

Nissan is marketing the Pathfinder as being the perfect combination of popular MPV (essentially the equivalent to our minivans, but offered in a whole host of different sizes and designs) versatility, on-road performance, and also the tough off-road ability Nissan ‘utes are known for throughout the world. With the Pathfinder, Nissan’s 4×4 lineup extends to a total of 6 distinct models. Consequently, the Pathfinder comes with good ground clearance, short overhangs, and Nissan’s advanced All Mode four-wheel drive system. The ladder-frame platform is essentially a substantially reworked version from the F-Alpha platform found underneath Nissan’s stout Titan and Armada full size truck and SUV.

Nissan Pathfinder. Courtesy: Nissan Europe

The appearance of the Pathfinder, inside and out, is situated heavily around the Dunehawk show car that made its debut in the 2003 Frankfurt Motor Show. That is to say, it fits in very nicely with Nissan North America’s line of truck-based vehicles like the aforementioned Titan and Armada, and the Frontier and Xterra – both of which share many parts with the Pathfinder. Nissan’s familiar “balanced angle strut” grille motif ties the Pathfinder face in with US offerings and European offerings like the X-Trail compact SUV and the fabled Patrol full-size SUV (usually the one you saw being driven by most of the UN weapons inspectors during their tenure in Iraq).

With versatile hatchbacks and MPVs very popular in Europe, Nissan must insure the Pathfinder makes good use of its ample footprint. First, allow for a fold-flat third row bench, though off, the fully independent double wishbone suspension front and back provide not only a surefooted ride. That means the Pathfinder offers a fully flat load floor measuring 2.8m long, plenty of room for multiple trips to IKEA. According to Nissan, despite the seats up it offers class leading luggage space. A multitude of storage spaces have been carved out of your Pathfinder’s innards, including a dual-level glove box, a double deck center console, storage spaces beneath the second row, and cubby holes near the third row seats. Oh, and did we mention it comes with a rear-view camera to prevent you from crushing among those Euro minicars when backing out of the carpark?

The Pathfinder will go on sale across Europe in March, with final assembly at Nissan’s Barcelona, Spain plant rather than the Smyrna, Tennessee plant where the US Pathfinder is made.

Nissan Murano. Courtesy: Nissan Europe

The Murano continues to be an unquestioned hit in the US market, to the stage where it has steadily eaten away at the Pathfinder’s sales in this country. Now it appears to be both models will go head-to-head for some internal competition on the European continent also. At the moment, it appears the car-based Murano crossover is the clear favorite. Nissan went back to the drawing board with the European version, coming to market with a vehicle which is different in at least 1600 different ways. Almost all are entirely invisible to consumers, including an oil cooler meant to keep up with the challenges of Europe’s higher average speeds. Marketed as the SUV-version of the 350Z, the Murano goes on sale early next season.

Chrysler Makes It Big With Its New Model


Earlier, we reported the increasing profits of General Motors and Ford; now it’s Chrysler’s turn. DaimlerChrysler’s American division (excluding Mercedes Benz) reported a 2nd quarter operating profit of $614 million, up from spanning a billion dollars lost just last year, according to the Associated Press.

A large part of the turnaround is because of a product revival that includes America’s current “it” cars, the Chrysler 300 and Dodge Magnum. The Bentley-esque 300 is bringing in import customers with its expensive looks as well as the 300C’s HEMI V8 power. The Dodge Magnum is successfully transferring the Dodge Ram’s testosterone-charged image to its wagon shape, converting many former truck and SUV buyers along the way. The AP reports that 34,571 Chrysler 300s were sold during its first 3 months on sale. That’s five times what the 300M, the 300’s predecessor, sold during that period the last year. The Magnum pulled in 7,726 units sold during its first couple of months available for sale. It replaces the Intrepid sedan.

Chrysler will launch 25 new models by 2006, 9 this year alone. Thanks partly to the 300 and the Magnum, Chrysler sales are up 2.1% for your first six months of the year. The Chrysler Group’s market share rose slightly to 13.5% in that time while GM and Ford lost share. Chrysler is now earning more despite having a smaller volume than GM and Ford’s North American automotive units. Chrysler only expects leads to improve further as the year continues, due to the aggressive model launch.

With a related note, Mercedes Benz reported an 18% dip in second-quarter operating profit, to $856 million thanks to lower sales, unfavorable exchange rates, and high launch costs of the new A-class and C-class. Both new models were delayed four weeks in order to avoid quality issues from cropping up on the first batch emerging from the factory.

In other MB news, Wolfgang Bernhard, the former Chrysler chief operating officer which was promoted to go Mercedes merely to have that stripped when he clashed with other executives in Germany, has effectively left the business. Rumors suggest he could head to Volkswagen or General Motors.

Going Beyond The Braking Basics


Many people ask frequently about braking systems, and what is better and exactly what is usable.

Everybody wants to go faster, handle better, braking is usually ignored, mainly do to the cost of major upgrades. After research and some experience most people will discover that, big brake kits, slotted, cross-drilled rotors have not crafted a huge dent in 60- or 70- stopping distances.

In this article we will look at what is important in stopping a vehicle and what factors are involved. Your reader should keep in mind concepts behind braking in this post. These concepts are universal, no matter what vehicle, we talk of, improving stopping distance is a matter of applying applications based on driving habits and driving conditions.

Read on and locate what you need to start stopping faster.

The following are terms you should have and know been supplied by brake system experts.

Clamping force:

The clamping force of a caliper in pounds is the brake line pressure multiplied with the total piston area of the caliper in a fixed caliper as well as two times the complete piston area in a floating design. To boost the clamping force it is actually necessary to either increase the line pressure or even the piston area. Increasing the pad area or the coefficient of friction is not going to increase clamping force.

What does this mean? That your particular clamping force of your caliper and brake subsystems has nothing to do with pad design or makeup nor does it have anything concerning the type of disc used.

This next little bit of information is really the basis for stopping the vehicle. Improving this area will get your vehicle stopping faster

Coefficient of friction:

A dimensionless indication of your friction qualities of one material vs. another. A coefficient of 1. would be equivalent to 1g. The higher the coefficient, the higher the friction. Typical passenger car pad coefficients are in the neighborhood of .3 to .4. Racing pads are in the .5 to .6 range. With most pads the coefficient is temperature sensitive so claims that do not specify a temperature range should be viewed with some suspicion. The optimum is to pick a pad having a virtually constant but decreasing coefficient on the expected operating range of temperatures. As a result, the operator does not have to wait for the pad to heat up before it bites, and also the pad fade will not be an issue so that modulation will be easy

Now that we have a foundation we can observe that finding the pad of the right heat and material range affects your braking efficiency. Because you have to heat it up to the approriate heat range before it bites, you don’t want a pad race pad for the street. Not to far of from racing tires where their operating range is higher, so getting them to stick requires more heat.

The main difference is here you choose a pad for your car based on driving habits, much like you would tires.

If you are in the brakes non-generating and quit excessive numbers of heat then you want a rotor and pad combo designed to bite or grip at higher temps.

About the street we want bite straight away thus a pad having a lower operating temp, as well as the trade off is fade at higher temps, (excessive braking or high speed braking) or reduced bite.

Here is a run down of some common types of materials.

Carbon/carbon brake:

A braking system by which both pads and discs are produced from carbon composite material. Utilized in every method of racing where they are not outlawed, carbon/carbon brakes offer significant reduction in rotating mass and inertia as well as much greater thermal capacity and dimensional stability being used. The disadvantages include cost, a certain amount of lag time while heat builds up (especially in the wet) and some difficulty in modulation. In contrast to popular belief, the coefficient of friction is no better than that of cutting edge carbon metallic pads and cast iron discs. An important advantage on super speedways is the decrease in gyroscopic precession on corner entry.

Carbon metallic:

It is a trademark in the Performance Friction Corporation. Pad friction compounds containing large percentages of pure carbon along with various metallic elements. Pioneered by Performance Friction Corporation these compounds offer very constant coefficients of friction vs. temperature characteristics along with increased thermal capacity. , since they both operate at higher temperatures and their temperature rises to operating temperature faster than other compounds, they increase thermal shock to the disc and increase thermal conduction to the caliper brake and pistons fluid,. That is the disadvantage. It is suggested to not use drilled discs with carbon metallic pads, as a result.

Thermal shock or disc being exposed to extreme temps causes a break in the bonds of the metals used in the discs which may cause cracking.

Is normal for brakes which can be exposed to hard braking, it is going to however result in shorter rotor lif, though thermal shock is different from bluing which is because of thermal stress on cast iron rotorse

Now through to Brake System Break in.

Bedding in: There are two types of “”bedding in”” pertaining to brakes:

Bedding of the friction material. All friction materials contain volatile elements used as binders. In the initial thermal cycling of the material these volatiles boil off, forming a gaseous layer between the friction material and the brake. A bedded pad will exhibit a layer of discolored material from 1.5 to 3 mm thick.

Bedding from the disc. Before using a new disk, all machining and preservative oils must be completely removed after the disc manufacturer’s recommendations. Usually it involves washing with soapy water or using among the proprietary “”brake clean”” compounds. The disc should then be checked and mounted for run out. It should be bedded in with numerous moderate stops with lots of cool off time between stops, gradually increasing the severity of the stops until the entire top of the disc is evenly discolored. This will prevent thermal distortion, shock and the formation of “”hot spots”” (regional deposition of pad material which results in a lasting transformation in the cast iron underneath the deposit) and ensure maximum disk life.

To properly burglary your pads and rotors we now know the importance of bedding in the materials.

When new pads are installed to bed them in run them through one complete heat cycle. This can vary in line with the type of pad and its heat range. Before subjecting them to race conditions, after one cycle has been completed allow them to fully cool.

It is advisable to bed new pads on bedded rotors, that are smooth and flat (Re-surfaced on a lathe) without any hot spots or bluing. When using new pads and rotors it needs a more delicate break in process. Heat cycling the pads once means more time for cooling the pad and rotor.

Here is a practical way to bed pads. (Assuming you just installed the new pads)

You should start by finding a safe location, uncrowded area preferably a track. Warm up the motor, and vehicle. Start with a series of low speed light braking manuvers to check brake system intgrity, post pad install. Inside a closed area or safe spot get started with harder stops from lower speeds 25-40 MPH. Slowly increase the speed and stopping power until they reach there specified heat range. This may be tough to tell, a genuine sport pad’s manufacturor will give you a heat range. After a series of 3-6 60-0MPH stops the pads should be cycled, you can always check the pad with a prod type thermometer or thermo pyrometer.

When the higher speed hard stops are applied if fade is evident begine the cool off process. Slow down, avoid using the brakes, and drive until you can park the automobile to allow the pads and rotors to attain atmospheric temperatures, before doing any racing or hard driving.

Following this procedure will maximize pad life, increase the co-efficient of friction bewteen the materials.

Since you now have that down lets reach the pedal effort you were discussing. This is called modulation. The stiffer and tighter the pedal may be the less force is transfered to the clamping system via the booster, and master cyl. The higher the pressure in the brake lines plus more pedal travel you have equals more force.

More pedal travel=Higher system pressure/clamping force harder to modulate

Stiffer pedal/tighter=Less pressure easier to modulate


The word given by this process by which the skilled driver controls the braking torque to maintain maximum retardation without locking wheels. Because the individual modulates most efficiently by force rather than displacement, effective brake modulation requires minimum pedal travel and maximum pedal firmness

The pads and rotors do not change this. They can increase your systems ability to increase hydrolic pressure though.

Mechanical pedal ratio:

The brake pedal is designed to multiply the driver’s effort. The mechanical pedal ratio is the distance from the pedal pivot denote the effective center of the footpad divided by the distance from the pivot point to the master cylinder push rod. Typical ratios range from 4: 1 to 9: 1.The larger the ratio, the greater the force multiplication (and also the longer the pedal travel)

This ratio can be adjusted by the installer.

So you can now see that brake modulation is essential for controlling your braking to maintain teh car stable, and has nothing to do with actual with

braking efficiency or braking tq.

There appears to be a misconception of what a ventilated disc is.

this can be a ventilated disc

This is a cross-drilled, slotted solid non-ventilated rotor.

This is a slotted ventilated disc

Many asked about the cross drilled rotors and how they guide cool the brake system. Well here is the short answer, air cools them, and without ducting running for your brake discs they are hardly more effective than your standard ventilated disc. The slotted rotors are for gassing, when the pads reach their operating temps or higher they start to gas or breakdown along with the slots exist to allow the gas to flee.

So, what cross drilled rotors do is reduce suface area decrease co-efficient of friction and they are more prone to thermal shock, and cracking unless, you have a specialized braking system using, special brake fluid, stainless steel brake lines, venting all the necessary items to aid in convection


One of only three heat transfer mechanisms. Conduction and radiation will be the other two. Convection will be the transfer of heat by fluid flow. Air can be considered to become fluid in a thermal style of a brake system when it is is and moving connection with the heated surfaces in the disc or drum. With regards to a solid disc the air moving over the top of the disc is extremely turbulent and random, but still functions to provide some cooling. In the case of a ventilated disc, by the pressure of a forced air duct or by induced flow that is caused by the centrifugal acceleration in the air already in the vent of a rotating disc, air flows throughout the vents. The atmosphere absorbs thermal energy down the vent path. In this way, the high temperature generated by the braking system of an automobile is transferred to the moving air stream and outside the brake disc.

The advent of carbon metallic friction materials with their increased temperatures and thermal shock characteristics ended the day from the drilled disc in professional racing, so far as cross drilled rotors go. They are still seen (mainly as cosmetic items) on motorbikes and several road going sports cars. Typically in original equipment road car applications these holes are cast then finished machined to provide the ideal conditions through which to resist cracking in use. But they will crack eventually under the circumstances described in another section. Properly designed, drilled discs tend to operate cooler than non-drilled ventilated discs the exact same design due the higher flow rates throughout the vents through the supplemental inlets and increased surface area inside the hole. That’sright and inlets, the flow is in the hole and out with the vent towards the OD from the disc. If discs are to be drilled, the external edges of the holes must be chamfered (or, better still, radiused) and should also be peened.

Thanks to By Stephen Ruiz, Engineering Manager and

Carroll Smith, Consulting Engineer at STOPTECH LLC for technical definitions.

It’s true, there are many pads available, for the tuner, knowing the a person’s driving style will help the average Joe make a educated choice when upgrading brake components.

And on the car, most people will be more interested in doing a kit with big calipers and rotors because of those reasons, “”Big Brake”” kits look great on paper. However, upgrading calipers and rotors does not mean that the car will stop faster. Chances are if the manufacturer has a brake system made with one piston calipers clamping 7″” disks, that probably means other brake system components won’t be taking full advantage of the. A tuner can’t always upgrade one system, if there is a weak link elsewhere. The systems need to be looked at as a complete. Most brake articles online talk about this, treating the brake systems as a whole. OEM makers don’t produce perfectly designed brake systems,. That is what they don’t mention typically. The pad and rotor combos utilized on most cars are to purchase them stopping fast and lasting long. Which brings this article to the main point: throwing on a sport pad is the easiest way to increase your COF, and will increase efficiency. Due to their lower operating temperatures if the tuner drives hard the OEM pads on most cars will gas. Sport pads will be better for individuals who like to stop fast at higher speeds or those who are on the brakes long amounts of time, without the need for big brake upgrades.

Increasing rotor size may also help, but, not without sport calipers. If both were adde the system might require true stainless-steel teflon brakelines, and a possible upgraded booster and master cyl. to accomodate the increased pressure needed to keep clamping force up, in addition to race/syn brake fluid.

People searching for a little more bite for hard braking might find using sport pads and slotted rotors for gasing a real treat. This combo is best realized for hard driving (IE: autox, roadrace). I suggest replacing or bleeding the brake fluid also to help pedal feel after an install of this nature.

In conclusion, I actually have found those who do brake upgrades are disappointed, by the longevity of them. Pads and rotors are a wear and tear item, in most cases performance brake parts last 1/2 as long as OEM solutions. Discovering how to break them in and the way they job is the driver’s key to stopping faster.

This 2007 Volkswagen Jetta 2.0T Might Be What You Have Dreamt For


While the 2007 Volkswagen Jetta performs more than adequately with the standard 2.5 liter 4-cylinder engine, the optional 2. liter turbocharged engine turns this family car right into a genuine performance car. My tester came with a slick 6-speed Direct Shift Gearbox including Tiptronic self-shifter. Put into the Jetta’s classy interior it proves that in Germany you can have your Black Forest Cake and eat it, too. $22,620 first of all, $25,595 as tested, EPA mileage estimates 25 city/32 highway.

First Glance: When a sports car isn’t practical enough…

Unlucky for each other, lucky in test drives. A short time ago I needed the good fortune to be testing an Accord on California’s fabled Hwy. 1, an automobile enthusiast’s dream road. In Beautiful British Columbia, my next test placed me on the Malahat, which twists and turns over and up a mountain the exact same name. Not as spectacular nor as long as California’s gem, the Malahat nevertheless offers a splendid array of curves, straight sections, and from time-to-time, brief glimpses from the ocean a huge number of feet below. As on Hwy. If you’re not careful, 1, they soon provide an unwanted close-up.

Now I was testing a Jetta Turbo with 6-speed DSG automatic (Article: DSG, what it is and the way it operates). Next to a pure sports vehicle, an ideal group of wheels with this road. Triple lucky, I also had the good fortune to hit the Malahat during one of the rare moments if it wasn’t clogged with tourist traffic. Forgetting for a moment that the Jetta’s primary duty is always to serve as family transport, I took advantage of the near-empty highway to explore this particular model’s secondary role: to perform for anyone drivers who, when not chauffeuring the kids to soccer practice, like to waltz with a car as dancing partner.

Continued below…

From The Driver’s Seat: Great… when you can get in

2007 Volkswagen Jetta 2.0T dashboard

2007 Volkswagen Jetta 2.0T dashboard

Photo © Philip Powell

Provided you can get through the open door, the Jetta’s interior is pleasant. Once was having said that i can still walk upright as well as 6-feet should certainly slip inside a 4-door sedan with ease now I’ll admit that as About Cars’ token old guy I’m not as supple as I. Every attempt using the Jetta involved neck-twisting and also the inevitable mussed hair (yes, I’m happy I still need hair). The back seat was no better, suggesting that the car’s tall stance continues to be sacrificed to style. Once in, however, I was enchanted by a handsome and typically German cockpit which immediately telegraphs a note: you’re here tobuddy and drive, so pay attention.

All gray and black, the only visual relief is supplied by a band of lightly-patterned aluminum and a touch of chrome on the shift-surround. Primary tach, speedo and instruments, are clear but the engine temperature and fuel gauges are far too small for any quick glance. The console has the same fault. If you’re not wearing bifocals, Large and simple, it contains one list of switches that need a change of glasses. Drinkers of morning revival juice will be glad to note both cupholders do not interfere with the armrest and handbrake. In the event the sunroof’s open, but be prepared for a coffee-Tsunami.

On the Road: Amazing transmission technology and super handling

I’m not certain whether it was the 200 wild horses Volkswagen delivers from a 2-liter engine or even the amazing 6-speed transmission that impressed me most having said that i suspect it was the latter. Apart from a CVT (continuously variable transmission) I’ve never experienced one that downshifted and upshifted so deftly that we didn’t be aware of it was changing gears. Such as the Audi A3, the Jetta’s transmission utilises direct-shift technology similar to F1 race cars and includes Tiptronic, which allowed me to control changes manually. Unlike many similarly-equipped vehicles I actually used it on winding roads.

Of course power’s of no value if your vehicle lacks poise in corners. I’m delighted to report that the Jetta, featuring its precise steering turn-in and sharp responses, reacted to my demands, turning the Malahat as well as other twisties into a personal playground. Such handling characteristics, in addition to being fun for that driver, make for a safer car. As I’ve said ever since I began road testing decades ago, the auto that handles well has a better chance of avoiding a crash. In normal cruising mode the Jetta is smooth and quiet. Back seat passengers will see the view forward somewhat limited and there’s no center armrest. Two’s company, three’s a crowd.

Journey’s End: Extra power is nice, but I’ll take the 2.5

2007 Volkswagen Jetta 2.0T rear view

2007 Volkswagen Jetta 2.0T rear view

Photo © Philip Powell

This was my first experience with a Jetta (diesel excepted) since attending the 2005 media preview in San Diego. The exam cars then featured a 2.5 liter, 5-cylinder, 150 hp non-turbo engine which I thought offered enough performance. I still do. But the Jetta prospect who demands more can now pick a 2-liter turbo and exchange the standard 5-speed to get a race-based 6-speed. Is it really worth the extra bucks? All depends where your priorities lie. In this world of top rated automobiles a Jetta 2.0T can outrun many larger cars with V-6 engines and yet beat them in an economy contest.

This is a changing world, although ah. In assessing this car you’d be in admiring it’s appearance. You’d make a wise choice in giving up a little bit interior space in favor of a far more nimble, fun-to-drive sedan. You’d enjoy the European emphasis on driving vs. plush comfort. You may have a heck of a lot of fun, as I did, in the driver’s seat. The question, however, remains: should you really plunk along the extra bucks for this illustration of a Jetta’s talents? Would I? Most likely not. Still, the Volkswagen Jetta in any guise is so darned good it deserves a put on my list of best buys.

Making the Most of your Independently-Booked Singer/Songwriter Tour

Everyone knows that if you are in a band, you have to hit the road and rock the country one face melt at a time. But if you are a singer songwriter, guy or gal with a guitar, it’s much more difficult. The pool is vast and you are trying to stand out as a puddle on a sea. How can you do that? There are various ways to make sure you are actually getting the attention you deserve, and there are tried and true methods to the madness of making it, of success, of doing what you love. We all have different definitions of success and having an unrealistic goal (i.e. super stardom) is going to get in your way. If you are a singer songwriter, you must define success differently than if you are a rock and roll band. Self sufficiency should be your goal, not becoming a household name.


No matter your ultimate goal, however, getting out in front of people is of the utmost importance. No one ever sat around their house waiting for things to click and to get noticed without actually being out there and making sure that people even know they exist. You can do local shows and drag your friends and family out, but if it’s just you and a guitar, they’re not going to want to come out all the time since they can just hear you do it at home or at the fire-side party. The best thing to do is hit the road.

But how can you do that? Well, it’s hard work, but you need to book a tour yourself. You need to route out a one or two-week trip around your home town and actually get out there and contact clubs and coffee shops who might let you play. Remember, you won’t know anyone in these towns, so you can’t be too picky about where you play. But so long as there are at least a few new ears in a venue on a given night, you will have the chance to make new fans and friends. Friends come first, true fans come later.


You’ll also need to make sure you have a reliable set of wheels, so head to Montclair Nissan dealership and see if you can get a good deal on a road-ready used car. Having a vehicle that won’t break down on you is so important in a tour situation because missing a gig can do huge detriment to your near and medium-range career. The Metro Nissan Redlands dealers are really great at helping you find a car that fits your budget.


Lastly, you need to make sure you have enough merchandise to sell that if someone hears you and loves you, there are opportunities for them to give you money. You will every now and then run into someone who will actually just hand you a twenty or more because they like you so much. But more likely is someone who likes you enough and will buy your shirt, your CD, your hat, your beer cozy. You can make a killing on merch if you have enough stuff. So don’t just hit the road with a few copies of your latest CD!

Indie tours are tough work, but are rewarding if done right. Make sure you get all your ducks in a row and then go out and pour your heart out to the music lovers of our nation.